Therapeutic research based on electronic medical records suffers from the possibility of various kinds of confounding. Over the past 30 years, propensity scores have increasingly been used to try to reduce this possibility. In this article a gap is identified in the propensity score methodology, and it is proposed to augment traditional treatment-propensity scores with outcome-propensity scores, thereby removing all other aspects of common causes from the analysis of treatment effects.


Biostatistics | Medicine and Health Sciences