We propose robust and e±cient tests and estimators for gene-environment/gene-drug interactions in family-based association studies. The methodology is designed for studies in which haplotypes, quantitative pheno- types and complex exposure/treatment variables are analyzed. Using causal inference methodology, we derive family-based association tests and estimators for the genetic main effects and the interactions. The tests and estimators are robust against population admixture and strati¯cation without requiring adjustment for confounding variables. We illustrate the practical relevance of our approach by an application to a COPD study. The data analysis suggests a gene-environment interaction between a SNP in the Serpine gene and smok- ing status/pack years of smoking that reduces the FEV1 volume by about 0.02 liter per pack year of smoking. Simulation studies show that the pro- posed methodology is su±ciently powered for realistic sample sizes and that it provides valid tests and effect size estimators in the presence of admixture and stratification.
Vansteelandt, Stijn and Lange, Christoph, "A unifying approach for haplotype analysis of quantitative traits in family-based association studies: Testing and estimating gene-environment interactions with complex exposure variables" (September 2006). COBRA Preprint Series. Working Paper 11.