We extend the Cox proportional hazards model to cases when the exposure is a densely sampled functional process, measured at baseline. The fundamental idea is to combine penalized signal regression with methods developed for mixed effects proportional hazards models. The model is fit by maximizing the penalized partial likelihood, with smoothing parameters estimated by a likelihood-based criterion such as AIC or EPIC. The model may be extended to allow for multiple functional predictors, time varying coefficients, and missing or unequally-spaced data. Methods were inspired by and applied to a study of the association between time to death after hospital discharge and daily measures of disease severity collected in the intensive care unit, among survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Biostatistics | Survival Analysis
Gellar, Jonathan E.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Needham, Dale M.; and Crainiceanu, Ciprian M., "COX REGRESSION MODELS WITH FUNCTIONAL COVARIATES FOR SURVIVAL DATA" (September 2014). Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers. Working Paper 264.