#### Abstract

The validity of standard confidence intervals constructed in survey sampling is based on the central limit theorem. For small sample sizes, the central limit theorem may give a poor approximation, resulting in confidence intervals that are misleading. We discuss this issue and propose methods for constructing confidence intervals for the population mean tailored to small sample sizes.

We present a simple approach for constructing confidence intervals for the population mean based on tail bounds for the sample mean that are correct for all sample sizes. Bernstein's inequality provides one such tail bound. The resulting confidence intervals have guaranteed coverage probability under much weaker assumptions than are required for standard methods. A drawback of this approach, as we show, is that these confidence intervals are often quite wide. In response to this, we present a method for constructing much narrower confidence intervals, which are better suited for practical applications, and that are still more robust than con?dence intervals based on standard methods, when dealing with small sample sizes. We show how to extend our approaches to much more general estimation problems than estimating the sample mean. We describe how these methods can be used to obtain more reliable confidence intervals in survey sampling. As a concrete example, we construct confidence intervals using our methods for the number of violent deaths between March 2003 and July 2006 in Iraq, based on data from the study ''Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: A cross-sectional cluster sample survey'', by Burnham et al. (2006).

#### Disciplines

Biostatistics | Design of Experiments and Sample Surveys | Statistical Methodology | Statistical Models | Statistical Theory

#### Suggested Citation

Rosenblum, Michael and van der Laan, Mark J., "Confidence Intervals for the Population Mean Tailored to Small Sample Sizes, with Applications to Survey Sampling" (June 2008). *U.C. Berkeley Division of Biostatistics Working Paper Series.* Working Paper 237.

http://biostats.bepress.com/ucbbiostat/paper237

#### Included in

Biostatistics Commons, Design of Experiments and Sample Surveys Commons, Statistical Methodology Commons, Statistical Models Commons, Statistical Theory Commons