The authors present the use of targeted learning methods for medical research, prepared as a chapter for the upcoming book "Statistics: Discovering Your Future Power." The targeted learning framework involves the explicit specification of the data, model, and parameter. The estimators are double robust and efficient, and can incorporate machine learning procedures such as the super learner.
Rose, Sherri; Starmans, Richard J.C.M.; and van der Laan, Mark J., "Targeted Learning for Causality and Statistical Analysis in Medical Research" (August 2012). U.C. Berkeley Division of Biostatistics Working Paper Series. Working Paper 297.