Motivated by modern observational studies, we introduce a class of functional models that expands nested and crossed designs. These models account for the natural inheritance of correlation structure from sampling design in studies where the fundamental sampling unit is a function or image. Inference is based on functional quadratics and their relationship with the underlying covariance structure of the latent processes. A computationally fast and scalable estimation procedure is developed for ultra-high dimensional data. Methods are illustrated in three examples: high-frequency accelerometer data for daily activity, pitch linguistic data for phonetic analysis, and EEG data for studying electrical brain activity during sleep.
Shou, Haochang; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; and Greven, Sonja, "Structured Functional Principal Component Analysis" (April 2013). Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers. Working Paper 255.