Case-control designs are widely used in rare disease studies. In a typical case-control study, data are collected from a sample of all available subjects who have experienced a disease (cases) and a sub-sample of subjects who have not experienced the disease (controls) in a study cohort. Cases are often oversampled in case-control studies. Logistic regression is a common tool to estimate the relative risks of the disease and a set of covariates. Very often in such a study, information of ages-at-onset of the disease for all cases and ages at survey of controls are known. Standard logistic regression analysis using age as a covariate is based on a dichotomous outcome and does not efficiently use such age-at-onset (time-to-event) information. We propose to analyze age-at-onset data using a modified case-cohort method by treating the control group as an approximation and show that the asymptotic bias of the proposed estimator is small when the disease rate is low. We evaluate the finite sample performance of the proposed method through a simulation study and illustrate the method using a breast cancer case-control data set.
Nan, Bin and Lin, Xihong, "Analysis of Case-Control Age-at-Onset Data Using a Modified Case-Cohort Method" (November 2006). The University of Michigan Department of Biostatistics Working Paper Series. Working Paper 66.